0505-19 NY Times Crossword 5 May 19, Sunday

Constructed by: Samuel A. Donaldson & Doug Peterson
Edited by: Will Shortz

Today’s Theme: Paper Work

Today’s themed clues are all common types of paper. However, the name of each type of the paper has been reinterpreted in the theme answer:

  • 23A Scratch paper? : LOTTERY TICKET
  • 28A Liquid paper? : WINE LIST
  • 36A Construction paper? : BUILDING PERMIT
  • 48A Fly paper? : BOARDING PASS
  • 67A Wax paper? : RECORD DEAL
  • 70A Note paper? : SHEET MUSIC
  • 91A Position paper? : SEATING CHART
  • 100A Wall paper? : COLLEGE DIPLOMA
  • 106A Term paper? : CONTRACT
  • 119A Crepe paper? : BREAKFAST MENU

Read on, or jump to …
… a complete list of answers

Bill’s time: 18m 35s

Bill’s errors: 0

Today’s Wiki-est Amazonian Googlies

Across

1 Measure of a stone : CARAT

The carat is a unit of mass equal to 200 mg. It is used in sizing gemstones.

6 Purchase of proof? : ALCOHOL

Alcoholic proof is a measure of the alcoholic strength of a beverage. In the US, alcoholic proof is twice the alcohol by volume (ABV), and ABV is simply the volume of alcohol in a the beverage compared to its total volume, and expressed as a percentage. Therefore a liquor that is 50% ABV, is 100 proof. The concept of “proof” dates back to the days of British sailors being paid partly with rations of rum. A “proof spirit” was the most dilute spirit that would sustain combustion of gunpowder. Simply stated, if the rum that a sailor was given was so dilute that it doused burning gunpowder, then it was unacceptable to the sailor. The person providing the rum had to give “proof” that the rum would catch light, proving it was strong enough to be used as payment. It was found experimentally that rum of 57.15% ABV was the lowest concentration that could sustain a flame, so this was named as 100 degrees proof. But nowadays we round down to 50% ABV.

20 “Don’t cry for me” singer : EVITA

“Don’t Cry For Me Argentina” is a hit song that came out of the 1976 concept album “Evita” by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice. Recorded by English singer Julie Covington, it is sung by the character Eva Perón on the album and in the subsequent stage musical. Covington opted out from appearing in the musical, and so the role of Eva went to Elaine Paige.

23 Scratch paper? : LOTTERY TICKET

That would be a scratch card.

27 2013 film whose lead actress is never seen : HER

2003’s “Her” is a rather unusual film. It stars Joaquin Phoenix as a man who develops a relationship with a computer operating system called “Samantha”, which is voiced by Scarlett Johansson.

30 What Oberon orbits : URANUS

All of the twenty-seven moons of the planet Uranus are named for characters from literature, with each being characters created by William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope. The five major moons are so large that they would be considered planets in their own right if they were orbiting the sun directly. The names of these five moons are:

  • Miranda (from Shakespeare’s “The Tempest”)
  • Ariel (from Shakespeare’s “The Tempest” and Pope’s “The Rape of the Lock”)
  • Umbriel (from Pope’s “The Rape of the Lock”)
  • Titania (from Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”)
  • Oberon (from Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”)

44 Bugs from the underworld : MORAN

Bugs Moran was a Chicago gangster, the main rival to the slightly more famous Al Capone. Moran tried twice to kill Capone. In the first attempt Moran and his gang shot at Capone from their car as their target was getting out of his own automobile. They missed Capone, and he took to driving in an armored vehicle after that. The second, more famous attempt (in 1926), involved Moran and a fleet of cars driving by Capone’s hotel and spraying the lobby in which he was standing. Again, Capone escaped unharmed. Three years later, in February 1929, six members of Moran’s gang were lined up against a wall and shot by order of Capone, an incident we now remember as the famous St. Valentine’s Day Massacre.

45 Jane Austen heroine : EMMA

Here is the opening paragraph of the novel “Emma”, by Jane Austen:

Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence; and had lived nearly twenty-one years in the world with very little to distress or vex her.

46 Grp. that usually meets in the evening : PTA

Parent-Teacher Association (PTA)

55 Mormon Church, for short : LDS

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) is known colloquially as the Mormon Church.

56 Spreads in the kitchen : OLEOS

Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France announced a competition to develop a substitute for butter, a substitute that would be more accessible to the lower classes and more practical for the armed forces. A French chemist called Hippolyte Mege-Mouries came up with something he called oleomargarine in 1869, which was eventually manufactured under the trade name “margarine”. The name “oleomargarine” also gives us our generic term “oleo”.

57 Hyundai model : ELANTRA

The Elantra is a compact car made by Hyundai of South Korea. There was a long-standing dispute between Hyundai and manufacturers Lotus and Mitsubishi. Lotus contended that the Elantra name was too close the Lotus Elan, and Mitsubishi didn’t like the similarity to the Mitsubishi Elante.

60 Horror director Roth : ELI

Eli Roth is one of a group of directors of horror movies known quite graphically as “The Splat Pack”. I can’t stand “splat” movies and avoid them as best I can. Roth is also famous for playing Donny Donowitz in the Quentin Tarantino movie “Inglourious Basterds”, a good film I thought, if you close your eyes during the gruesome bits.

61 K-12 : ELHI

“Elhi” is an informal word used to describe anything related to schooling from kindergarten through grade 12, i.e. elementary through high school.

63 Broadway’s Cariou : LEN

Len Cariou is a Canadian actor who is famous for his Broadway portrayal of “Sweeney Todd”. I most recognize Cariou from supporting roles in “Flags of Our Fathers” and “Thirteen Days”, two great movies.

65 Pop group whose name derives from the initials of its members’ first names : ABBA

I am an unapologetic fan of ABBA’s music. ABBA was the Swedish group who topped the charts in the seventies and eighties. The name ABBA is an acronym formed from the first letters of the given names of each of the band members: Agnetha, Benny, Bjorn and Anni-Frid. Early in their careers, the four fell in love and formed two married couples: Agnetha and Bjorn, and Benny and Anni-Frid. However, at the height of their success, the relationships became strained and both couples divorced.

75 Bygone auto whose name sounds like a command : YUGO

The Yugo is a notoriously unreliable subcompact car that was built by the Zastava corporation of Yugoslavia.

76 “I want details!” : DISH!

To dish the dirt is to talk about someone or something without regard to veracity. The phrase comes from “dish” (in the sense of dishing out food) and “dirt” (in the sense of negative information).

88 Bygone sitcom set around Houston : REBA

Reba McEntire is a country music singer and television actress. McEntire starred in her own sitcom called “Reba” that aired on the WB and the CW cable channels from 2001 to 2007.

94 Competitor of Reach : ORAL-B

The Oral-B toothbrush was introduced to the world in 1950, designed by a California periodontist. The first “model” was the Oral-B 60, a name given to reflect the 60 tufts in the brush. In 1969, the Oral-B was the first toothbrush to get to the moon as it was the toothbrush of choice for the crew of the Apollo 11 spacecraft.

96 Settings for some TV dramas, for short : ERS

Emergency room (ER)

99 Prophet who inveighed against the “sins of Israel” : HOSEA

Hosea was one of the Twelve Prophets of the Hebrew Bible. The Twelve Prophets are also known as the Minor Prophets of the Old Testament in the Christian Bible.

100 Wall paper? : COLLEGE DIPLOMA

In ancient times, diplomas issued by educational institutions were made of thin sheepskin, as paper wasn’t an economically viable material back then. We still use the term “sheepskin” to mean “diploma”.

103 Segue to the next part of a story : SO THEN …

A segue is a transition from one topic to the next. “Segue” is an Italian word that literally means “now follows”. It was first used in musical scores directing the performer to play into the next movement without a break.

105 Warhol subject : MAO

Andy Warhol made a famous series of portraits of Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong in 1973. An exhibition of Warhol’s works toured China in 2012 but the images of Mao were excluded, apparently at the request of the Chinese government.

118 The least little bit : ONE IOTA

Iota is the ninth letter in the Greek alphabet, and one that gave rise to our letters I and J. We use the word “iota” to portray something very small, as it is the smallest of all Greek letters.

126 Bridge positions : EASTS

The four people playing a game of bridge are positioned around a table at seats called north, east, south and west. Each player belongs to a pair, with north playing with south, and east playing with west.

Down

1 Hanna-Barbera collectibles : CELS

In the world of animation, a cel is a transparent sheet on which objects and characters are drawn. In the first half of the 20th century the sheet was actually made of celluloid, giving the “cel” its name.

3 Singer Ora with three solo #1 hits in Britain : RITA

Rita Ora is a British singer who was born Rita Sahatçiu in Pristina, Yugoslavia to Albanian parents. The family name “Sahatçiu” comes from a Turkish word meaning “watchmaker”. Rita’s parents changed their name to make it easier to pronounce. So, the family name morphed from “watchmaker” to “time”, which is “ora” in Albanian.

5 Class one might take for kicks? : TAEKWONDO

Taekwondo is the national sport of Korea. “Tae” means “to strike or break with foot”; “kwon” means “to strike or break with fist”; “do” means “way” or “art”. Along with judo, taekwondo is one of only two martial arts included in the Olympic Games.

7 Baltic dweller : LETT

Latvia is one of the former Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs). People from Latvia are called Letts.

8 It helped bring dinos to life in “Jurassic Park” : CGI

Computer-generated imagery (CGI)

11 John ___, three-time Gold Glove first baseman : OLERUD

John Olerud is a former professional first baseman who was noted for his hitting. Olerud has the nicknames “Johnny O” and the not very complimentary “Big Rude”.

14 Rules of engagement? : PRENUP

Prenuptial agreement (prenup)

15 “The Ten Commandments” villain : RAMESES

“The Ten Commandments” is an epic movie directed by Cecil B. DeMille, and released in 1956. The cast is as epic as the film, with Charlton Heston playing the lead role of Moses. Also appearing are Yul Brynner as Rameses, Edward G. Robinson as Dathan, Vincent Price as Baka and Anne Baxter as Nefretiri.

16 Human rights lawyer Clooney : AMAL

Amal Alamuddin married celebrated Hollywood actor George Clooney in 2014. Alamuddin was born in Beirut, Lebanon and moved with her family to London when she was a toddler. She is a lawyer specializing in international law, with one of her more renowned clients being the founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange.

17 Depression follower, for short : WWII

The Great Depression (also “Depression Era) was a worldwide phenomenon in the decade or so that preceded World War II. The depression was sparked by a dramatic drop in stock prices in the US in September 1929, which eventually made the news around the world following the stock market crash of October 29th of that year, now known as Black Tuesday. US unemployment rose to 25% during the Great Depression, and in some countries unemployment was as high as 33%. Many economists believe that World War II played a large role in ending the depression, at least here in the US. Government spending on the war increased employment dramatically, although many of those jobs were in the front lines. During the war, unemployment fell back below 10%.

18 Office PC connections : LANS

Local Area Network (LAN)

24 Body part whose name contains another body part : REAR

“Rear” contains “ear”.

31 Grave letters : RIP

Rest in peace (RIP)

33 Noggin : NOODLE

Slang terms for “head” are “bean”, “coconut”, “gourd”, “noodle” and “noggin”.

37 Ones making calls, informally : UMPS

Back in the 15th century, “an umpire” was referred to as “a noumpere”, which was misheard and hence causing the dropping of the initial letter N. The term “noumpere” came from Old French “nonper” meaning “not even, odd number”. The idea was that the original umpire was a third person called on to arbitrate between two, providing that “odd number” needed to decide the dispute.

38 “___ Pepper …” (classic soda jingle) : I’M A

Dr Pepper was introduced in 1885 in Waco, Texas, one year before the competing Coca-Cola was released to the market. I spent an entertaining few hours at the Dr Pepper Museum in Waco a few years ago. And, note the lack of a period after “Dr”.

40 Pi + 1? : RHO

Rho comes after pi in the Greek alphabet.

42 Talent show that jumped networks, familiarly : IDOL

“American Idol” is a spin-off show that was created after the amazing success of the British television show “Pop Idol”. Aired on Fox from 2002 to 2016, the show “jumped ship” and moved to ABC starting in the 2018 season.

43 Actress Polo : TERI

Teri Polo’s most prominent role on the big screen was Pam Focker in “Meet the Fockers” and its sequel. Pam is the wife of the character played by Ben Stiller. Polo also played the wife of Presidential candidate Matt Santos in “The West Wing”.

51 Symbol in many a URL : SLASH

The punctuation mark “/” has been around for a long time, and has been known by several names including “oblique”, “stroke” and “virgule”. The name “slash” is relatively new, arising in the very early 1960s and gaining popularity with the proliferation of computers.

59 SALT subject, for short : ABM

An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a rocket designed to intercept and destroy a ballistic missile (as one might expect from the name). A ballistic missile, as opposed to a cruise missile, is guided during the initial launch phase but later in flight just relies on thrust and gravity (hence “ballistic”) to arrive at its target. As an aside, an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a ballistic missile with a range greater than 3,500 miles.

There were two rounds of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) between the US and the Soviet Union, and two resulting treaties (SALT I & SALT II). The opening round of SALT I talks were held in Helsinki as far back as 1970, with the resulting treaty signed by President Richard Nixon and General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev in 1972. Brezhnev also signed the SALT II treaty, with President Jimmy Carter in 1979.

64 Inventor Howe : ELIAS

Elias Howe was an American inventor. Howe wasn’t the first to come up with the idea of a sewing machine, but he was the first to develop one that was functional.

66 Part of an after-school lineup : BUS

We use the term “bus” for a mode of transportation, as it is an abbreviated form of the original “omnibus”. We imported “omnibus” via French from Latin, in which language it means “for all”. The idea is that an omnibus is a “carriage for all”.

68 Some N.F.L. linemen: Abbr. : RGS

Right guard (RG)

72 Welsh “John” : EVAN

The name “John” translates into Scottish as “Ian”, into Russian as “Ivan”, into Italian as “Giovanni”, into Spanish as “Juan”, into Welsh as “Evan”, and into Irish as “Seán”.

74 El Greco, e.g. : CRETAN

El Greco (“the Greek”, in Spanish) was the nickname of the artist whose real name was Domenikos Theotokopoulos. El Greco was born in Crete in 1541, and moved to Venice to study art when he was in his early twenties. A few years later he moved to the city of Toledo in central Spain, where he lived and worked for the rest of his life.

83 Immigrant’s desire : GREEN CARD

A green card is more correctly called a US Permanent Resident Card. The informal term “green card” harks back to the period between 1946 and 1964 when the document was indeed green in color. After dropping the green for many years, the Permanent Resident Card was changed back to a green color in 2010.

85 Modern education acronym : STEM

The acronym STEM stands for the disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. An alternative acronym with a similar meaning is MINT, standing for mathematics, information sciences, natural sciences and technology.

101 Relative of a Vandyke : GOATEE

A goatee is a beard formed by hair on just a man’s chin. The name probably comes from the tuft of hair seen on an adult goat.

Anthony van Dyck was a Flemish artist, although he was noted as a painter in the British royal court. His most famous portraits are of King Charles I of England and members of his family. The men in his paintings often sported a short, pointed beard that was in fashion at the time. When that style of beard became fashionable again centuries later, it was termed a “Van Dyke” in honor of the artist.

102 Family name on “The Dick Van Dyke Show” : PETRIE

“The Dick Van Dyke Show” is a sitcom that ran from 1961 to 1966 starring Dick Van Dyke and Mary Tyler Moore as Rob and Laura Petrie. This classic show was created by the great Carl Reiner, who also had a supporting role on screen.

103 “Do the Right Thing” pizzeria : SAL’S

“Do the Right Thing” is a Spike Lee movie that was released in 1989. Much of the action in the film is centered on a local pizzeria called “Sal’s” owned by Italian-American Salvatore Frangione (played by Danny Aiello).

107 “Movin’ ___” (“The Jeffersons” theme) : ON UP

“Movin’ On Up” is the theme song for “The Jeffersons” sitcom that was first broadcast in the seventies and eighties.

The very popular sitcom called “The Jeffersons” ran from 1975 until it came to an abrupt end in 1985. CBS cancelled the show without even allowing a series finale that “wrapped things up”. In fact, lead actor Sherman Hemsley learned of the show’s cancellation in the newspaper.

108 Old Roman autocrat : NERO

Nero was Emperor of Rome from 54 to 68 CE, and towards the end of his reign participated in the Olympic Games in the year 67. The Roman leader raced in a ten-horse chariot, of which he lost control and nearly perished after being thrown from the vehicle. Acting and singing were Olympic events back then, and Nero also took part in those competitions. By all accounts, Nero performed badly in every event in which he vied, and yet somehow still managed to win Olympic crowns that he paraded around Rome on his return from Greece.

109 One of the Jacksons : TITO

The Jackson 5 singing group was originally made up of brothers Tito, Jackie, Jermaine, Marlon and Michael. The four eldest brothers continued to perform, using the name “The Jacksons”, after Michael went solo.

112 Former “Meet the Press” host Marvin : KALB

Marvin Kalb is a journalist most famous for his 30-year stint reporting for CBS and NBC News. Kalb was the last person to be recruited by journalism icon Edward R. Murrow.

113 People who are totes close : BFFS

Best friend forever (BFF)

114 Often-pantomimed hit song of the 1970s : YMCA

“YMCA” was released in 1978 by Village People and has been adopted as an anthem by the gay community. The song was written by Victor Willis, a straight member of the mostly gay band, and he clarifies that the lyrics are extolling the virtues of the “YMCA” as a source of recreation for black urban youth. I think he might have been winking when he said that …

115 “Cheers” actor Roger : REES

Roger Rees was a Welsh actor. Rees played the character Robin Colcord on “Cheers”, the posh love interest for Rebecca Howe played by Kirstie Alley. Rees also appeared periodically on “The West Wing” as the marvelously flamboyant and eccentric Lord John Marbury, the British Ambassador.

120 Soul from Seoul? : KIA

The Kia Soul is a compact car produced in South Korea, although it was designed by Kia here in the US, in Irvine, California. Yep, the Kia Soul is made in Seoul …

Complete List of Clues/Answers

Across

1 Measure of a stone : CARAT
6 Purchase of proof? : ALCOHOL
13 Takes up a lot of space : SPRAWLS
20 “Don’t cry for me” singer : EVITA
21 Enchant : BEGUILE
22 Mine transport : TRAMWAY
23 Scratch paper? : LOTTERY TICKET
25 Hangs around : REMAINS
26 Most stylish : SWANKEST
27 2013 film whose lead actress is never seen : HER
28 Liquid paper? : WINE LIST
29 Acted as : WAS
30 What Oberon orbits : URANUS
32 Relay closer : ANCHOR
36 Construction paper? : BUILDING PERMIT
44 Bugs from the underworld : MORAN
45 Jane Austen heroine : EMMA
46 Grp. that usually meets in the evening : PTA
47 Veiled criticism, in slang : SHADE
48 Fly paper? : BOARDING PASS
52 Assn. : ORG
54 That stinks! : ODOR
55 Mormon Church, for short : LDS
56 Spreads in the kitchen : OLEOS
57 Hyundai model : ELANTRA
60 Horror director Roth : ELI
61 K-12 : ELHI
63 Broadway’s Cariou : LEN
64 Periods of note : ERAS
65 Pop group whose name derives from the initials of its members’ first names : ABBA
67 Wax paper? : RECORD DEAL
70 Note paper? : SHEET MUSIC
75 Bygone auto whose name sounds like a command : YUGO
76 “I want details!” : DISH!
78 506, in old Rome : DVI
79 Trade jabs (with) : SPAR
80 Ending with body or spy : -CAM
82 Expresses exasperation toward : SIGHS AT
85 Some trumpeters : SWANS
87 Size above med. : LGE
88 Bygone sitcom set around Houston : REBA
90 La-la lead-in : TRA-
91 Position paper? : SEATING CHART
94 Competitor of Reach : ORAL-B
96 Settings for some TV dramas, for short : ERS
98 First place? : EDEN
99 Prophet who inveighed against the “sins of Israel” : HOSEA
100 Wall paper? : COLLEGE DIPLOMA
103 Segue to the next part of a story : SO THEN …
104 Contribute : DONATE
105 Warhol subject : MAO
106 Term paper? : CONTRACT
110 Exclamation that’s usually doubled : TSK!
113 Doggy treat : BELLY-RUB
118 The least little bit : ONE IOTA
119 Crepe paper? : BREAKFAST MENU
121 Terrapin catcher : TURTLER
122 Humanitarian operation : AIRLIFT
123 Trap at a ski lodge, perhaps : ICE IN
124 Wound : SPOOLED
125 Chilean catch : SEA BASS
126 Bridge positions : EASTS

Down

1 Hanna-Barbera collectibles : CELS
2 Profess : AVOW
3 Singer Ora with three solo #1 hits in Britain : RITA
4 Abbr. on an envelope : ATTN
5 Class one might take for kicks? : TAEKWONDO
6 Deep hole : ABYSS
7 Baltic dweller : LETT
8 It helped bring dinos to life in “Jurassic Park” : CGI
9 “That’s a good burn!” : OUCH!
10 Take a walk on the wild side? : HIKE
11 John ___, three-time Gold Glove first baseman : OLERUD
12 Authorize to : LET
13 Craft created on a board with nails : STRING ART
14 Rules of engagement? : PRENUP
15 “The Ten Commandments” villain : RAMESES
16 Human rights lawyer Clooney : AMAL
17 Depression follower, for short : WWII
18 Office PC connections : LANS
19 Routine: Abbr. : SYST
24 Body part whose name contains another body part : REAR
28 Deliberate and unprovoked : WANTON
31 Grave letters : RIP
32 Unhurried walker : AMBLER
33 Noggin : NOODLE
34 Drum kit component : CRASH CYMBAL
35 Half a laugh? : HAR-
36 “Shoo!” : BEGONE!
37 Ones making calls, informally : UMPS
38 “___ Pepper …” (classic soda jingle) : I’M A
39 Eye surgeon’s tool : LASER
40 Pi + 1? : RHO
41 Debuted to great acclaim : MADE A SPLASH
42 Talent show that jumped networks, familiarly : IDOL
43 Actress Polo : TERI
49 Volunteer’s offer : I’LL DO IT
50 Grant factor, sometimes : NEED
51 Symbol in many a URL : SLASH
53 Harsh : GRATING
58 Neutral color : ASH
59 SALT subject, for short : ABM
62 Marker, informally : IOU
64 Inventor Howe : ELIAS
66 Part of an after-school lineup : BUS
68 Some N.F.L. linemen: Abbr. : RGS
69 App annoyances : ADS
71 Actress Findley : EDWINA
72 Welsh “John” : EVAN
73 “What she said” : I AGREE
74 El Greco, e.g. : CRETAN
77 Symbol of strength : STEEL
80 Critter that likes to lie in the sun : CROC
81 Prefix with -naut : AERO
83 Immigrant’s desire : GREEN CARD
84 Really busy doing : HARD AT
85 Modern education acronym : STEM
86 Clothing symbol for a graduate of Oxford or Cambridge : SCHOOL TIE
89 Exclusively : ALL
92 Running around : ADO
93 Sexy : HOT
95 Portable place to sleep : BEDROLL
97 Take a load off : SIT
101 Relative of a Vandyke : GOATEE
102 Family name on “The Dick Van Dyke Show” : PETRIE
103 “Do the Right Thing” pizzeria : SAL’S
105 Butcher’s stock : MEATS
106 Portable places to sleep : COTS
107 “Movin’ ___” (“The Jeffersons” theme) : ON UP
108 Old Roman autocrat : NERO
109 One of the Jacksons : TITO
111 Hospital fluids : SERA
112 Former “Meet the Press” host Marvin : KALB
113 People who are totes close : BFFS
114 Often-pantomimed hit song of the 1970s : YMCA
115 “Cheers” actor Roger : REES
116 Soldier’s assignment : UNIT
117 Tush : BUNS
119 Some undergrad degs. : BAS
120 Soul from Seoul? : KIA

10 thoughts on “0505-19 NY Times Crossword 5 May 19, Sunday”

  1. 34:53. A merciful Sunday puzzle after a tough weekend. Very interesting story about the meaning of “proof” as it pertains to ALCOHOL.

    Best –

  2. 35:46, no errors. So many naticks for me, I felt like an archeologist excavating this puzzle with a dental pick and fine brush.

    Thank you Bill for interesting explanation of the origin of the word ‘proof’.

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